Most moles are solitary creatures that only come together to reproduce. Territories may overlap, but moles usually avoid each other. Males may fight to the death if they meet. The range of a solitary mole may be as large as 2.7 acres. The underground mole network consists of large, complicated burrow structures with distinct living and hunting areas.
Mole activity increases in the Spring when the ground begins to thaw and insects become active. Spring is also the time when female moles complete their gestation period. Typically in May a female mole gives birth to 2 to 6 naked babies in a cozy nest in one of the deeper burrows. Baby moles grow very quickly. The babies can take care of themselves when they are only about one month old! At four to five weeks, the pups are weaned. By five to six weeks, pups leave their home tunnel completely. They are now independent and are making their own burrows by late Summer or Fall.
Moles tunnel in search of food. A 5-6 ounce mole can eat up to 50 pounds of insects, worms, and grubs a year. To feed their voracious appetite, moles burrow throughout your yard in search of their next tasty meal: worms, beetles, and other insects. Their underground tunnel network causes the surface of your yard to rise. Moles produce two types of “runways.” One type runs just beneath the surface. These are feeding tunnels and look like raised ridges running across your lawn. The second type runs deeper and enables the moles to unite the feeding tunnels in a network. It is the soil excavated from the deep tunnels that homeowners find on their lawns, piled up in mounds that resemble little volcanoes.